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1. Downloadable Virus Image and Graphics Files: (.JPG Thumbnails and Large .TIF Files)

 

2. The Foundations of Medical and Veterinary Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries, Inventors and Inventions, Developers and Technology (.DOC and .PPTX Files)

 

3. The Foundations of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fever Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries (.PPTX File)

 

4. Laboratory Investigation Papers (.PDF Files of Eight Papers from the 1970-1980s: Three Papers on Rabies, and one each on St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, Semliki Forest Virus, Marburg Virus, Pichinde Virus and Tamiami Virus) (.PDF Files)

 

Frederick A. Murphy

Department of Pathology
University of Texas Medical Branch
301 University Blvd Route 0609
Galveston, TX 77555-0609
(Office Tel) 409 747 2430
(Home Tel) 409 744 3143
(Cell Tel) 409 739 3332
(Email) famurphy@utmb.edu


1. Downloadable Virus Image and Graphics Files: (.JPG Thumbnails and Large .TIF Files)

The following images may be reprinted for educational or non-profit purposes, as long as they are credited as shown. Note: TIF images will be downloaded when you click on the thumbnails below. If you have problems beginning the download, right-click on the thumbnail below and choose "Save Target as..." or "Save Link as..." (depending on your browser). The TIF images range from 5 to 10 MB, so download times may be lengthy, depending on your connection. If a smaller image is desired, right-click on the JPG thumbnail and choose "Save Image as..." or "Save Picture as...".


Diagram illustrating the shapes and sizes of viruses of families that include animal, zoonotic and human pathogens. The virions are drawn to scale, but artistic license has been used in representing their structure. In some, the cross-sectional structure of capsid and envelope are shown, with a representation of the genome; with the very small virions, only their size and symmetry are depicted. From F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Bunyamwera virus infection in mouse brain. This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions have accumulated in the normally narrow spaces between neurons as a result of budding from the intracytoplasmic (Golgi) membranes and exocytosis via membrane fusion. Some virions are still located within the lumen of Golgi vesicles. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Coronavirus. Mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC. This virus, formerly called "lethal intestinal virus of infant mice" (LIVIM), is the etiologic agent of a lethal enteritis, the most important disease of infant laboratory mice [see Hierholzer JC, Broderson JR, Murphy FA. New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice. Infect Immun. 1979 May;24(2):508-22.]. This is an ultra -- thin section of the small intestine of an infant mouse at two days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions have accumulated upon the plasma membrane of this intestinal epithelial cell as a result of transport from sites of virion production in the endoplasmic reticulum and exocytosis via membrane fusion -- the virions then stick to the outer surface of the cell. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Coronavirus. Top, human coronavirus 229E; bottom, mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC. Negative contrast electron microscopy. Classical negative contrast images of coronaviruses are really not the way they look when in their native state. The peplomers (spikes) fall off so easily that most images seen in atlases and textbooks are really partly "bald." Native virions are actually so heavily covered with peoplmers that virions might not be recognized if only the classical images are in mind. Here, the top micrograph represents the classical image and the bottom micrograph the way coronaviruses look in their native state. Magnification approximately x60,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human coronavirus 229E. The same image as above, but colorized. Negative contrast electron microscopy. Classical negative contrast images of coronaviruses are really not the way they look when in their native state. The peplomers (spikes) fall off so easily that most images seen in atlases and textbooks are really partly "bald," as are these. Native virions are actually so heavily covered with peoplmers that virions might not be recognized if only the classical images are in mind. Magnification approximately x60,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus. This is an ultra-thin section of a Vero cell culture infected for 24 hours. Virions have accumulated in the space between cells as a result of budding from the surface membrane of infected cells. In this infection very large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions are produced quickly and as quickly the cells are destroyed. Magnification approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus, in mosquito salivary gland. This is an ultra-thin section of the salivary gland of an Aedes triseriatus (Say) mosquito, 21 days after infection, showing large numbers of virions within the lumen of an upstream divereticulum of the salivary space. In this infection large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions crowd the salivary space, ready to be transmitted to the next vertebrate host when the mosquito seeks a blood meal. Magnification approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus (image 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance — they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance — they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance — they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions (image 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with virions budding from the plasma membrane at 2 days post infection. Preformed viral nucleocapsids are seen in the cytoplasm beneath the budding site. Here, virion budding is occurring "perpendicular" to the plane of the plasma membrane -- in other instances budding has been seen to occur in "parallel" fashion, with the entire virion nucleocapsid first lying in contact with the inner face of the plasma membrane and budding occurring along its entire length. Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with viral nucleocapsid inclusion bodies in massed array in its cytoplasm at 2 days post infection. These inclusions may be dramatic in scale, beautiful in appearance, but this is "a terrible beauty" (Yeats). Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with viral nucleocapsid inclusion bodies in massed array in its cytoplasm at 2 days post infection. These inclusions may be dramatic in scale, beautiful in appearance, but this is "a terrible beauty" (Yeats). Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Herpes simplex virus, the causative agent of fever blisters. Thin section of virions as they leave the nucleus of an infected cell. Herpes simplex virus infection becomes latent, that is it becomes invisible after a fever blister episode, but the virus persists, in ganglia at the floor of the brain; when conditions are right the virus can re-emerge. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Herpes simplex virus, the same image as above, but colorized. Thin section of virions as they leave the nucleus of an infected cell. Herpes simplex virus infection becomes latent, that is it becomes invisible after a fever blister episode, but the virus persists, in ganglia at the floor of the brain; when conditions are right the virus can re-emerge. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human adenovirus 5. This is an ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture. Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of cells and as seen here they may reach extraordinary concentrations. When isometric particles are crowded together they form six-fold, three-dimensional arrays—when such arrays are sectioned one sees various planes of section because the pseudocrystalline array is not perfect. Magnification: approximately x80,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human adenovirus 5, colorized. This is the same ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture as above, only colorized. Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of cells and as seen here they may reach extraordinary concentrations. When isometric particles are crowded together they form six-fold, three-dimensional arrays—when such arrays are sectioned one sees various planes of section because the pseudocrystalline array is not perfect. Magnification: approximately x80,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human rotavirus. This is an ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture. Rotaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, usually in association with granular inclusions ("virus factories") as shown here. Magnification: approximately x80,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human rotavirus, colorized. This is the same ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture as above, only colorized. Rotaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, usually in association with granular inclusions ("virus factories") as shown here. Magnification: approximately x80,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus, colorized, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

LaCrosse virus infection in mouse brain. This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with La Crosse virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions (100nm in diameter) are accumulating within intracytoplasmic (Golgi) vesicles as a result of budding. Magnification approximately x40,000 (composite). Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

La Crosse virus, purified from an infected Vero cell culture. Virions have been penetrated by the negative contrast stain; the fine surface projections and envelope (derived from Golgi membrane of the infected cell) that are characteristic of viruses like this (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) are clear, but viral nucleocapsids, which are very fine strands, are not. Magnification: approximately x80,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Lassa virus, the causative agent of Lassa fever, an important hemorrhagic disease of West Africa. Thin section of virions in a space between cells—Lassa virus buds from the surface membrane of cells where it is then free to invade other nearby cells and is free to enter the bloodstream. Magnification approximately x55,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Lassa virus, low magnification image of an infected Vero cell in culture. Lassa virus buds from the surface membrane of cells where it is then free to invade other nearby cells and is free to enter the bloodstream. Many in vitro studies of arenaviruses employ techniques such as zonal ultracentrifugation that select for median-sized virions, say virions about 110nm in diameter, leaving the impression that the arenaviruses are quite unifrom in size. However, as shown here, they really are quite variable in size and pleomorphic in outline. Magnification approximately x15,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marburg virus, as seen by negative stain electron microscopy of a diagnostic specimen from the original outbreak in 1967. The virions are still connected to a piece of the plasma membrane of the Vero cell used to grow the virus from a human diagnostic specimen (blood). This image, over the years, came to be called in jest "the duck." Magnification about x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marburg virus in the liver of an experimentally infected monkey. Virions bud off the surface membrane of liver cells and accumulate in the narrow spaces between cells. This infection is extremely destructive—shortly after this phase of infection the liver cells are destroyed. The uniformly cylindrical virions are sectioned in various planes—some are seen in longitudinal-section, some in cross-section, some in between. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marburg virus in the liver of an experimentally infected monkey -- the same image as above, but colorized. Virions bud off the surface membrane of liver cells and accumulate in the narrow spaces between cells. This infection is extremely destructive—shortly after this phase of infection the liver cells are destroyed. The uniformly cylindrical virions are sectioned in various planes—some are seen in longitudinal-section, some in cross-section, some in between. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Poliovirus 1. Poliovirus was purified and prepared for negative contrast electron microscopy. This image shows uniform 29 nm (nanometer) virions arranged in pseudocrystalline array. It is just that isometric particles often fit together in six-fold, two-dimensional array, as had occurred here on the background support film. Their array is like the arrangement that peas take when shaken in a pan. Magnification approximately x200,000. Micrograph from J. Esposito, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, and F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain. This micrograph covers just part of the cytoplasm of an infected neuron. Two hallmarks of rabies virus infection are seen — there is minimal damage seen to the structure of infected neurons even though the extent of the infection is dramatic, and large numbers of bullet-shaped virions accumulate as a result of budding upon the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of these cells. Magnification approximately x25,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain. This is the same image as above, but colorized. This micrograph covers just part of the cytoplasm of an infected neuron. Two hallmarks of rabies virus infection are seen — there is minimal damage seen to the structure of infected neurons even though the extent of the infection is dramatic, and large numbers of bullet-shaped virions accumulate as a result of budding upon the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of these cells. Magnification approximately x25,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain, showing an early stage in the formation of a Negri body, as the massed excess viral nucleocapsid material condenses into the dense form that when larger may be seen at the light miroscopic level of magnification. Here, some virions are seen budding from intracytoplasmic membranes surrounding the Negri body. Magnification approximately x30,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus in the salivary gland of a rabid fox. In this image there are salivary gland cells (cells that make mucous saliva) on both edges. The salivary space in the center, which leads downstream to the salivary duct, is filled with bullet-shaped virions. The virions are sectioned in various planes so they do not all look like bullets. Magnification: approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus, purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus. The same image as above, but colorized. Virus purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus. The same image as above, but colorized. Virus purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus. Diagnostic immunofluorescence, fox brain, 1965. The direct immunofluorescence method was first applied to rabies diagnosis by Robert Goldwasser and Robert Kissling at CDC in 1958 (Goldwasser RA and Kissling RE. Fluorescent antibody staining of street and fixed rabies virus antigens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  98:219-223, 1958). I was in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps at the Fourth U.S. Army Medical Laboratory, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, in 1959, which was the first laboratory to employ the new method in the field -- there was lots of rabies in the area then and lots of diagnostics to do. The method and reagents were just as good from the beginning as they are now: fluorescent microscopes are better and monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent conjugates are often used, but the sensitivity and specificity and practicality of the method have not changed. The image here is of a touch impression from the brainstem of a rabid fox, stained with goat anti-rabies hyperimmune globulin, conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanate, and examined under deep ultraviolet light with filters allowing only the wavelength of the specific fluorescence to be seen (along with enough background to see the specimen -- here brown, but different in different setups). Magnification approximately x250. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rift Valley fever virus. In this micrograph virions are seen budding into membrane vesicles (Golgi vesicles) in the cytoplasm of a liver cell (hepatocyte) of an infected rat. The 100 nm (nanometer) virions then make their way to the cell surface and are released. This virus replicates to very high concentrations very quickly and causes very rapid damage to the liver and other organs. The virus is mosquito-borne and in nature affects sheep, cattle, wild mammals and humans. The virus was the cause of one of the most explosive epidemics ever seen when it appeared in 1977 in Egypt. A recent epidemic in Saudi Arabia and Yemen represents the first time that the virus has appeared outside Africa. This virus, because it can infect many different vertebrates and many different mosquitoes, presents perhaps the greatest potential threat posed by any virus. Magnification approximately x30,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ross River virus causes an age-dependent and virus strain-dependent destructive infection of striated muscle and connective tissue in limbs and joints and hind limb paralysis in mice. This is not a perfect model of the debilitating arthritis, arthralgia seen in infected humans, but nevertheless there are merits to the model since the pathogenesis of alphavirus-induced arthritic disease in humans is not well understood. Here Ross River virus virions are budding from the plasma membrane of hind limb muscle cells 5 days post infection. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ross River virus causes an age-dependent and virus strain-dependent destructive infection of striated muscle and connective tissue in limbs and joints and hind limb paralysis in mice. This is the same image as above, but colorized. This is not a perfect model of the debilitating arthritis, arthralgia seen in infected humans, but nevertheless there are merits to the model since the pathogenesis of alphavirus-induced arthritic disease in humans is not well understood. Here Ross River virus virions are budding from the plasma membrane of hind limb muscle cells 5 days post infection. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Scrapie AA

Scrapie BB

Scrapie: Lesions in the gray matter of the brain of a sheep with scrapie: (A) typical spongiform change in neurons; (B) spongiform change and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. A, hematoxylin and eosin stain; B, glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) stain. Magnification x500. [Micrograph courtesy of Dr. R. Higgins, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis]

Sin Nombre virus, the cause of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwestern US. This virus was discovered in 1993 when there was a cluster of cases in one place at one time. Magnification approximately. x45,000. Micrograph from Cynthia Goldsmith, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Smallpox virus, growing in the cytoplasm of an infected cell. Thin section of infected chick embryo cell. Mature virions are brick-shaped, but here immature forms are also visible. Smallpox virus was globally eradicated in 1977 by an international vaccination campaign, one of the greatest achievements in history. Magnification approximately x25,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Smallpox virus, single virion, as seen by negative stain electron microscopy. The brick-shaped virion is covered with what looks like filaments (although in reality this outer layer is not really like a ball of string). This virion is from a human skin lesion, from a diagnostic specimen that came to the Centers for Disease Control in 1966 as part of the WHO Global Smallpox Eradication Program. Magnification about x150,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

St. Louis encephalitis virus in the salivary gland of a Culex pipiens mosquito 26 days after infection. Massive amounts of virus, some in paracrystalline array, may be seen within the salivary space - transmission to the next vertebrate host occurs when the mosquito injects its saliva (which contains anticoagulants) when taking a blood meal. Magnification approximately x30,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (low magnification to show larger profile of the salivary gland), in the salivary gland of a Culex pipiens mosquito 26 days after infection. Massive amounts of virus, some in paracrystalline array, may be seen within the salivary space - transmission to the next vertebrate host occurs when the mosquito injects its saliva (which contains anticoagulants) when taking a blood meal. Magnification approximately x15,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Russian Spring-Summer Encephalitis virus), mouse brain, 6 days post-infection, showing typical flavivirus infection characteristics, including multivesiculation in cytoplasm and presence of virions within lumina of endoplasmic reticulum. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Vesicular stomatitis virus, purified from an infected cell culture. This is an important pathogenic virus of cattle, causing fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. Negatively stained virions: note that they are clearly "bullet shaped" just like rabies virus. Magnification approximately x40,000. Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.


2. The Foundations of Medical and Veterinary Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries, Inventors and Inventions, Developers and Technology (.doc file)

 

The Foundations of Medical and Veterinary Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries, Inventors and Inventions, Developers and Technology - WORD FILE (.DOC)

The above title is a hyperlink to a Word file that includes a large table, with more than 400 entries chronologically listing many of the great discoverers and their discoveries, inventions and their inventors and developers and their technologies, that form the foundation of medical and veterinary virology. This Word file will be updated as needed, for example when users contribute suggestions for changes, additions, deletions, etc. Entries highlighted in yellow denote the need for images to go into the PowerPoint Slide Set that accompanies this table (below).

 

2. The Foundations of Medical and Veterinary Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries, Inventors and Inventions, Developers and Technology -- PowerPoint Slide Sets (.PPTX)

The below titles are hyperlinks to a set of PowerPoint slides with images chronologically listing many of the great discoverers and their discoveries, inventions and their inventors and developers and their technologies, that form the foundation of medical and veterinary virology. These PowerPoint files will be updated as needed, for example when users contribute further images, and suggest additions, deletions, etc. NOTE: the file entitled SLIDE SET COMBINED is about 130mb in size, the others are about 40mb -- these files upload well in my system (office and DSL-line at home), but may load slowly in some systems.I recently had to switch to Microsoft Office 2007, and PowerPoint 2007, so there may be compatibility problems for those using earlier versions such as Office 2003 and PowerPoint 2003. Sorry, but Microsoft does have a free Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2007 File Formats, available at:

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=941b3470-3ae9-4aee-8f43-c6bb74cd1466&displaylang=en.

There may also be a compatibility problem with the latest Mac OS, but no patch to correct this has been found.

Foundations of Virology Combined 400BCE - 2008 (.PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 1 400BCE - 1902 (.PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 2 1903 - 1936 (.PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 3 1937 - 1955 (.PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 4 1956 - 1967 (,PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 5 1968 - 1983 (.PPTX)

Foundations of Virology 6 1984 - 2010 (.PPTX)

Note: In PowerPoint, the Page Setup is set for "35mm slides" (wider perspective). The principal font used in the files: "BENGUIAT bK bt" (TRUETYPE)

Benguiat Bk BT,Book

Benguiat Bk BT,Book Italic

Benguiat Bk BT,Bold

Benguiat Bk BT,Bold Italic


The two files below contain a lecture presented at the University of Pennsylvania, April 2009, on the occasion of the presentation of the Penn Vet World Leadership Award -- it is full of my personal and professional perspective on my career and on the world of emerging infectious diseases. As requested, it is here with and without narration, the former done with Adobe Presenter in PowerPoint.

New and Emerging Zoonoses: a Personal Perspective - University of Pennsylvania, April 2009 (Powerpoint slide set - no narration)


3. The Foundations of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fever Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries (.PPTX File)

The below title is a hyperlink to a PowerPoint slide set with images illustrating many of the great discoverers and their discoveries that form the foundation of arbovirology and hemorrhagic fever virology. Charles Calisher is co-author. This Powerpoint slide set was presented at the meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses in November 2009. This file will be updated as needed, for example when users contribute further images, and suggest additions, deletions, etc. NOTE: the file is about 90mb in size and may load slowly in some systems. I recently had to switch to Microsoft Office 2007, and PowerPoint 2007, so there may be compatibility problems for those using earlier versions such as Office 2003 and PowerPoint 2003. Sorry, but Microsoft does have a free Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2007 File Formats, available at:

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=941b3470-3ae9-4aee-8f43-c6bb74cd1466&displaylang=en.

There is also a compatibility problem with the latest Mac OS, but no patch to correct this has been found.

The Foundations of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fever Virology: Discoverers and Discoveries (.PPTX)

3A. The Foundations of Vaccinology

The below title is a hyperlink to a PowerPoint slide set with images illustrating some of the great discoveries that form the foundation of viral vaccinology. This Powerpoint slide set will be presented at the meeting in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in October of 2010. WORK IN PROGRESS

The Foundations of Vaccinology (.PPTX)


4. Laboratory Investigation papers

Recently, I was asked for digital reprints of several papers I had published years ago in the journal, Laboratory Investigation. It seemed that they were not available anywhere except in library stacks. I communicated with the present Editor-in-Chief of the journal, only to find that the Nature Publishing Group had purchased the journal and had stated it had no intent to produce a digital archive of issues before 2000. Therefore, I scanned the eight papers we had published in the journal and have uploaded the files here. There are three papers on rabies, and one each on St. Louis encephalitis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Marburg virus, Pichinde virus and Tamiami virus -- they are in Adobe .pdf format (optimized for smaller file size -- I have the larger non-optimized files, if you wish copies with somewhat higher resolution of the figures -- please just let me know your needs). You are welcome to these files; here are the links:


Meselson, Stahl and the Replication of DNA: The Most Beautiful Experiment in History (.PPTX)