The validation of cellular and molecular mechanisms at the systems level is required to determine their functional relevance and clinical significance. Our department has extensive expertise in the electrophysiological analysis of neuronal activity and information processing in the peripheral nervous system, spinal cord, and brain. Biochemical markers and optical techniques are also used to determine activity changes and map neural circuits. A wide array of behavioral assays is available for the analysis of simple reflex responses as well as complex behaviors related to higher brain functions. Specific areas of interest include pain, neurotrauma, olfaction, and emotion.