Speech is a fine motor activity to produce sounds involving the coordination of the lips, tongue, vocal folds, the vocal tract, and respiration. These sounds form the basis of words that are used for the purpose of communication. There is a developmental sequence of sounds. Some sounds are produced earlier than others. For example, children usually say "p, b, m, f, t, d" before "s, th, r." As children develop, they acquire the ability to produce more and more sounds and sound combinations (e.g., blue, flight) clearly.
While learning to speak, all children pronounce some words incorrectly. You may hear a child substitute one sound for another (wabbit for rabbit), or omit a sound (do for dog) or distort a sound (shlip for ship). Although these are common speech errors and will probably disappear as a child gets older, they might also be signs of an articulation disorder. Simply stated, an articulation disorder exists when a child consistently makes speech sound errors that are not usually made by children of the same age.
Your child may have an articulation disorder if sounds are not progressing according to the following developmental sequence.
7 Months-1 Year
Verbal apraxia in children (or childhood apraxia of speech) is defined as the inability or difficulty with purposeful voluntary movement for speech. Children with verbal apraxia will have difficulty positioning and sequencing movements of muscles specifically for speech.
Oral apraxia involves difficulty with specific volitional production of nonspeech movement of the articulators (blowing, puffing out cheeks, coughing, lip smacking). Children with oral apraxia will have difficulty imitating such movements or producing them on command.
Characteristics of Verbal Apraxia:
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