Frederick A. Murphy
University of Texas Medical Branch
Department of Pathology, Route 0609
301 University Boulevard
Galveston, TX 77555-0609 USA
(Tel-Office) 409 747 2430
(Tel-Home) 409 744 3143
(Tel-Cell) 409 739 3332
(Email) famurphy@utmb.edu

eBook, Foundations of Virology, revision, April 2014, with 25 extra pages. This version is available online only:
Foundations of Virology - eBook - .pdf
(Optimized PDF)

 

Hard Copy Book: Foundations of Virology:

A hard copy of The Foundations of Virology is available at Infinity Publishing, at http://www.buybooksontheweb.com/product.aspx?ISBN=0-7414-7365-8. [Infinity Publishing, 1094 New Dehaven St., Suite 100, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. Tel: 610-941-9999 and toll free: 877- 289-2665)]  It is also available at Amazon and Barnes and Noble. The page limit for on-demand printers has been reached, so the latest eBook version, with 25 extra pages, is not available as a hard copy.

 

There are three tabs immediately below:

(1) The Virus Images: Electron Micrographs tab leads to 22 virus images (plus various colorized versions of some of the images). The images and all the other resources in this website may be reprinted and/or used for educational or non-profit purposes, as long as they are credited appropriately. Note: large .tif or .jpg images will be downloaded when you right-click on the thumbnails or choose "Save Image as..." or "Save Picture as..." according to your browser. The large images range from 5 to 10 Mb.

(2) The Foundations of Virology tab leads to the main (combined) PowerPoint slide set, Foundations of Virology, and to the same set broken into six smaller files. This tab also contains the file for my 565 page eBook, with the same title, Foundations of Virology. This is a 180Mb .pdf file, which takes about 2 minutes to download on my home computer, but it is the lowest resolution (smallest file) possible. The highest resolution file, suitable for printing, is also available, but I would have to send it via Dropbox.

(3) The Virology Papers tab contains a Word file (.doc), Discovers and Discoveries, which has a large chronological table matching the entries in the PowerPoint slide set and the eBook. This tab also contains .pdf files of several of my old papers that are not available on the Internet.


Place the cursor here to see images
Vertebrate virus families - Diagram of the families of viruses that include human, animal and zoonotic pathogens
virus diagram

Diagram illustrating the shapes and sizes of viruses of families that include animal, zoonotic and human pathogens. The virions are drawn to scale, but artistic license has been used in representing their structure. In some, the cross-sectional structure of capsid and envelope are shown, with a representation of the genome; with the very small virions, only their size and symmetry are depicted.
From F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Bunyamwera virus
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Bunyamwera virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected mouse brain.

Bunyamwera virus, mouse brain section

This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions have accumulated in the normally narrow spaces between neurons as a result of budding from the intracytoplasmic (Golgi) membranes and exocytosis via membrane fusion. Some virions are still located within the lumen of Golgi vesicles. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Coronaviruses
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Coronaviruses - mouse hepatitis virus and human coronavirus 229E

Thin section and negative contrast electron microscopy of mouse tissue and purified virus.

Coronavirus. Mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC

Coronavirus. Mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC. This virus, formerly called "lethal intestinal virus of infant mice" (LIVIM), is the etiologic agent of a lethal enteritis, the most important disease of infant laboratory mice [see Hierholzer JC, Broderson JR, Murphy FA. New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice. Infect Immun. 1979 May;24(2):508-22.]. This is an ultra -- thin section of the small intestine of an infant mouse at two days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions have accumulated upon the plasma membrane of this intestinal epithelial cell as a result of transport from sites of virion production in the endoplasmic reticulum and exocytosis via membrane fusion -- the virions then stick to the outer surface of the cell. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Top, human coronavirus 229E; bottom, mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC

Coronavirus. Top, human coronavirus 229E; bottom, mouse hepatitis virus, strain MHV-S/CDC. Negative contrast electron microscopy. Classical negative contrast images of coronaviruses are really not the way they look when in their native state. The peplomers (spikes) fall off so easily that most images seen in atlases and textbooks are really partly "bald." Native virions are actually so heavily covered with peoplmers that virions might not be recognized if only the classical images are in mind. Here, the top micrograph represents the classical image and the bottom micrograph the way coronaviruses look in their native state. Magnification approximately x60,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human coronavirus 229E

Human coronavirus 229E. The same image as above, but colorized. Negative contrast electron microscopy. Classical negative contrast images of coronaviruses are really not the way they look when in their native state. The peplomers (spikes) fall off so easily that most images seen in atlases and textbooks are really partly "bald," as are these. Native virions are actually so heavily covered with peoplmers that virions might not be recognized if only the classical images are in mind. Magnification approximately x60,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus
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Eastern equine encephalitis virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus

Eastern equine encephalitis virus. This is an ultra-thin section of a Vero cell culture infected for 24 hours. Virions have accumulated in the space between cells as a result of budding from the surface membrane of infected cells. In this infection very large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions are produced quickly and as quickly the cells are destroyed. Magnification approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus, in mosquito salivary gland

Eastern equine encephalitis virus, in mosquito salivary gland. This is an ultra-thin section of the salivary gland of an Aedes triseriatus (Say) mosquito, 21 days after infection, showing large numbers of virions within the lumen of an upstream divereticulum of the salivary space. In this infection large numbers of the 60 nm (nanometer) spherical virions crowd the salivary space, ready to be transmitted to the next vertebrate host when the mosquito seeks a blood meal. Magnification approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus
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Ebola virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture and negative contrast electron microscopy of virus from cell culture.

Ebola virus

Ebola virus (image 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance -- they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus

Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance — they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus

Ebola virus (image 1 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient—this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. This image has been "borrowed" so often for various public uses that many people think that all Ebola virions look just like this—indeed, in the film Outbreak every virion seen looked just like this. In fact, Ebola virions are extremely varied in appearance — they are flexible filaments with a consistent diameter of 80 nm (nanometers), but they vary greatly in length (although their genome length is constant) and degree of twisting. Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x60,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions

Ebola virions (image 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions

Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions

Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virions

Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 2), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a "bowl of spaghetti." Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus infected Vero cell

Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with virions budding from the plasma membrane at 2 days post infection. Preformed viral nucleocapsids are seen in the cytoplasm beneath the budding site. Here, virion budding is occurring "perpendicular" to the plane of the plasma membrane -- in other instances budding has been seen to occur in "parallel" fashion, with the entire virion nucleocapsid first lying in contact with the inner face of the plasma membrane and budding occurring along its entire length. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ebola virus infected Vero cell

Ebola virus infected Vero cell, with viral nucleocapsid inclusion bodies in massed array in its cytoplasm at 2 days post infection. These inclusions may be dramatic in scale, beautiful in appearance, but this is "a terrible beauty" (Yeats). Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Herpes simplex virus
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Herpes simplex virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus, the causative agent of fever blisters. Thin section of virions as they leave the nucleus of an infected cell. Herpes simplex virus infection becomes latent, that is it becomes invisible after a fever blister episode, but the virus persists, in ganglia at the floor of the brain; when conditions are right the virus can re-emerge. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus, the same image as above, but colorized. Thin section of virions as they leave the nucleus of an infected cell. Herpes simplex virus infection becomes latent, that is it becomes invisible after a fever blister episode, but the virus persists, in ganglia at the floor of the brain; when conditions are right the virus can re-emerge. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human adenovirus 5
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Human adenovirus 5

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Human adenovirus 5

Human adenovirus 5. This is an ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture. Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of cells and as seen here they may reach extraordinary concentrations. When isometric particles are crowded together they form six-fold, three-dimensional arrays—when such arrays are sectioned one sees various planes of section because the pseudocrystalline array is not perfect. Magnification: approximately x80,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human adenovirus 5

Human adenovirus 5, colorized. This is the same ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture as above, only colorized. Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of cells and as seen here they may reach extraordinary concentrations. When isometric particles are crowded together they form six-fold, three-dimensional arrays—when such arrays are sectioned one sees various planes of section because the pseudocrystalline array is not perfect. Magnification: approximately x80,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human rotavirus
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Human rotavirus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Human rotavirus

Human rotavirus. This is an ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture. Rotaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, usually in association with granular inclusions ("virus factories") as shown here. Magnification: approximately x80,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Human rotavirus

Human rotavirus, colorized. This is the same ultra-thin section of an infected cell in a cell culture as above, only colorized. Rotaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, usually in association with granular inclusions ("virus factories") as shown here. Magnification: approximately x80,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus
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Influenza virus

Negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus.

Influenza virus

Influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus

Influenza virus, colorized, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Influenza virus

Influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/1/68, the causative agent of the 1968 global epidemic. Negatively stained virions showing surface projections which contain the receptors by which the virus attaches to host respiratory tract epithelial cells. Magnification: approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

LaCrosse virus
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LaCrosse virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected mouse brain and negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus.

LaCrosse virus

LaCrosse virus infection in mouse brain. This is an ultra-thin section of the brain of a mouse infected with La Crosse virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) at six days post-infection when the mouse was moribund. Virions (100nm in diameter) are accumulating within intracytoplasmic (Golgi) vesicles as a result of budding. Magnification approximately x40,000 (composite).
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

LaCrosse virus

La Crosse virus, purified from an infected Vero cell culture. Virions have been penetrated by the negative contrast stain; the fine surface projections and envelope (derived from Golgi membrane of the infected cell) that are characteristic of viruses like this (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) are clear, but viral nucleocapsids, which are very fine strands, are not. Magnification: approximately x80,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Lassa virus
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Lassa virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Lassa virus

Lassa virus, the causative agent of Lassa fever, an important hemorrhagic disease of West Africa. Thin section of virions in a space between cells—Lassa virus buds from the surface membrane of cells where it is then free to invade other nearby cells and is free to enter the bloodstream. Magnification approximately x55,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Lassa virus

Lassa virus, low magnification image of an infected Vero cell in culture. Lassa virus buds from the surface membrane of cells where it is then free to invade other nearby cells and is free to enter the bloodstream. Many in vitro studies of arenaviruses employ techniques such as zonal ultracentrifugation that select for median-sized virions, say virions about 110nm in diameter, leaving the impression that the arenaviruses are quite unifrom in size. However, as shown here, they really are quite variable in size and pleomorphic in outline. Magnification approximately x15,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marburg virus
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Marburg Virus

Negative contrast electron microscopy of infected cell culture and thin section electron microscopy of the liver of an infected nonhuman primate.

Marberg Virus

Marburg virus, as seen by negative stain electron microscopy of a diagnostic specimen from the original outbreak in 1967. The virions are still connected to a piece of the plasma membrane of the Vero cell used to grow the virus from a human diagnostic specimen (blood). This image, over the years, came to be called in jest "the duck." Magnification about x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marberg Virus

Marburg virus in the liver of an experimentally infected monkey. Virions bud off the surface membrane of liver cells and accumulate in the narrow spaces between cells. This infection is extremely destructive—shortly after this phase of infection the liver cells are destroyed. The uniformly cylindrical virions are sectioned in various planes—some are seen in longitudinal-section, some in cross-section, some in between. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Marberg Virus

Marburg virus in the liver of an experimentally infected monkey -- the same image as above, but colorized. Virions bud off the surface membrane of liver cells and accumulate in the narrow spaces between cells. This infection is extremely destructive—shortly after this phase of infection the liver cells are destroyed. The uniformly cylindrical virions are sectioned in various planes—some are seen in longitudinal-section, some in cross-section, some in between. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Poliovirus
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Poliovirus

Negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus.

Poliovirus

Poliovirus 1. Poliovirus was purified and prepared for negative contrast electron microscopy. This image shows uniform 29 nm (nanometer) virions arranged in pseudocrystalline array. It is just that isometric particles often fit together in six-fold, two-dimensional array, as had occurred here on the background support film. Their array is like the arrangement that peas take when shaken in a pan. Magnification approximately x200,000. Micrograph from J. Esposito, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, and F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus
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Rabies virus

Negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus and thin section electron microscopy of the brain of an infected hamster and the salivary gland of an infected fox.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain. This micrograph covers just part of the cytoplasm of an infected neuron. Two hallmarks of rabies virus infection are seen — there is minimal damage seen to the structure of infected neurons even though the extent of the infection is dramatic, and large numbers of bullet-shaped virions accumulate as a result of budding upon the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of these cells. Magnification approximately x25,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain. This is the same image as above, but colorized. This micrograph covers just part of the cytoplasm of an infected neuron. Two hallmarks of rabies virus infection are seen — there is minimal damage seen to the structure of infected neurons even though the extent of the infection is dramatic, and large numbers of bullet-shaped virions accumulate as a result of budding upon the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of these cells. Magnification approximately x25,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus infection, hamster brain, showing an early stage in the formation of a Negri body, as the massed excess viral nucleocapsid material condenses into the dense form that when larger may be seen at the light miroscopic level of magnification. Here, some virions are seen budding from intracytoplasmic membranes surrounding the Negri body. Magnification approximately x30,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus in the salivary gland of a rabid fox. In this image there are salivary gland cells (cells that make mucous saliva) on both edges. The salivary space in the center, which leads downstream to the salivary duct, is filled with bullet-shaped virions. The virions are sectioned in various planes so they do not all look like bullets. Magnification: approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus, purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus. The same image as above, but colorized. Virus purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus. The same image as above, but colorized. Virus purified from an infected cell culture. Negatively stained virions: note their characteristic "bullet shape." Magnification approximately x70,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rabies virus

Rabies virus. Diagnostic immunofluorescence, fox brain, 1965. The direct immunofluorescence method was first applied to rabies diagnosis by Robert Goldwasser and Robert Kissling at CDC in 1958 (Goldwasser RA and Kissling RE. Fluorescent antibody staining of street and fixed rabies virus antigens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  98:219-223, 1958). I was in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps at the Fourth U.S. Army Medical Laboratory, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, in 1959, which was the first laboratory to employ the new method in the field -- there was lots of rabies in the area then and lots of diagnostics to do. The method and reagents were just as good from the beginning as they are now: fluorescent microscopes are better and monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent conjugates are often used, but the sensitivity and specificity and practicality of the method have not changed. The image here is of a touch impression from the brainstem of a rabid fox, stained with goat anti-rabies hyperimmune globulin, conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanate, and examined under deep ultraviolet light with filters allowing only the wavelength of the specific fluorescence to be seen (along with enough background to see the specimen -- here brown, but different in different setups). Magnification approximately x250.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Rift Valley fever virus
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Rift Valley fever virus

Thin section electron microscopy of the liver of an infected rat.

Rift Valley Fever

Rift Valley fever virus. In this micrograph virions are seen budding into membrane vesicles (Golgi vesicles) in the cytoplasm of a liver cell (hepatocyte) of an infected rat. The 100 nm (nanometer) virions then make their way to the cell surface and are released. This virus replicates to very high concentrations very quickly and causes very rapid damage to the liver and other organs. The virus is mosquito-borne and in nature affects sheep, cattle, wild mammals and humans. The virus was the cause of one of the most explosive epidemics ever seen when it appeared in 1977 in Egypt. A recent epidemic in Saudi Arabia and Yemen represents the first time that the virus has appeared outside Africa. This virus, because it can infect many different vertebrates and many different mosquitoes, presents perhaps the greatest potential threat posed by any virus. Magnification approximately x30,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Ross River virus
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Ross River virus

Thin section electron microscopy of hind limb muscle of an infected mouse.

Ross River virus (RRV)

Ross River virus causes an age-dependent and virus strain-dependent destructive infection of striated muscle and connective tissue in limbs and joints and hind limb paralysis in mice. This is not a perfect model of the debilitating arthritis, arthralgia seen in infected humans, but nevertheless there are merits to the model since the pathogenesis of alphavirus-induced arthritic disease in humans is not well understood. Here Ross River virus virions are budding from the plasma membrane of hind limb muscle cells 5 days post infection. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus
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Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus (Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus)

Thin section electron microscopy of the brain of an infected mouse.

Russian Spring-Summer Encephalitis virus

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Russian Spring-Summer Encephalitis virus), mouse brain, 6 days post-infection, showing typical flavivirus infection characteristics, including multivesiculation in cytoplasm and presence of virions within lumina of endoplasmic reticulum. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Scrapie
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Scrapie

Light microscopic histopathology of the brain of a sheep infected with the scrapie prion.

Scrapie

Scrapie: Lesions in the gray matter of the brain of a sheep with scrapie: (A) typical spongiform change in neurons; (B) spongiform change and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. A, hematoxylin and eosin stain; B, glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) stain. Magnification x500. [Micrograph courtesy of Dr. R. Higgins, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis]

Sin Nombré virus (Hantavirus)
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Sin Nombré virus (Hantavirus)

Thin section electron microscopy of infected cell culture.

Sin Nombré Virus

Sin Nombré virus, the cause of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwestern US. This virus was discovered in 1993 when there was a cluster of cases in one place at one time. Magnification approximately. x45,000. Micrograph from Cynthia Goldsmith, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Smallpox (Variola) virus
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Smallpox (Variola) virus

Thin section electron microscopy of infected chick embryo cell and negative contrast electron microscopy of a virion.

Smallpox

Smallpox virus, growing in the cytoplasm of an infected cell. Thin section of infected chick embryo cell. Mature virions are brick-shaped, but here immature forms are also visible. Smallpox virus was globally eradicated in 1977 by an international vaccination campaign, one of the greatest achievements in history. Magnification approximately x25,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Smallpox

Smallpox virus, single virion, as seen by negative stain electron microscopy. The brick-shaped virion is covered with what looks like filaments (although in reality this outer layer is not really like a ball of string). This virion is from a human skin lesion, from a diagnostic specimen that came to the Centers for Disease Control in 1966 as part of the WHO Global Smallpox Eradication Program. Magnification about x150,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

St. Louis encephalitis virus
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St. Louis encephalitis virus

Thin section electron microscopy of the salivary gland of an infected mosquito.

St. Louis Encephalitis

St. Louis encephalitis virus in the salivary gland of a Culex pipiens mosquito 26 days after infection. Massive amounts of virus, some in paracrystalline array, may be seen within the salivary space - transmission to the next vertebrate host occurs when the mosquito injects its saliva (which contains anticoagulants) when taking a blood meal. Magnification approximately x30,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

St. Louis Encephalitis

St. Louis encephalitis virus (low magnification to show larger profile of the salivary gland), in the salivary gland of a Culex pipiens mosquito 26 days after infection. Massive amounts of virus, some in paracrystalline array, may be seen within the salivary space - transmission to the next vertebrate host occurs when the mosquito injects its saliva (which contains anticoagulants) when taking a blood meal. Magnification approximately x15,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Vesicular Stomatitis Indiana virus
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Vesicular Stomatitis Indiana virus

Negative contrast electron microscopy of purified virus.

Vesicular Stomatitis Indiana Virus

Vesicular stomatitis virus, purified from an infected cell culture. This is an important pathogenic virus of cattle, causing fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. Negatively stained virions: note that they are clearly "bullet shaped" just like rabies virus. Magnification approximately x40,000.
Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Please do send me corrections, updates, additions there is opportunity to tweak these files over the long run. Thank you, Fred Murphy