References and Sources

Atanda, Alfred, Deepak Reddy, Jaime A. Rice, and Michael A. Terry. "Injuries and Chronic Conditions of the Knee in Young Athletes." Pediatrics in Review Nov 2009, 30 (11) 419-430; DOI: 10.1542/pir.30-11-419.

Beaty, James et al. Rockwood and Wilkins Fractures in Children 7th edition. PA: 2010.

Canares, Theree, Lockhart, Gregory."Sprains." Pediatrics in Review Jan 2013, 34 (1) 47-49.

Cardone, Dennis A., DO & Jacobs, Bret C., DO, MA (2016). Meniscal Injury of the knee. In T.W. Post, K. Fields & J. Grayzel (Eds.), UptoDate.
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Diab, Mohammad. Practice of Paediatric Orthopaedics. New York: 2016.

Friedberg, Ryan P., MD (2016). Anterior cruciate ligament injury. In T.W. Post, K. Fields & J. Grayzel (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from

Grogan, Dennis P., and John A. Ogden. "Knee and Ankle Injuries in Children."Pediatrics in Review Nov 1992, 13 (11) 429-434; DOI: 10.1542/pir.13-11-429.

Hergenroeder, Albert C., MD & Harvey, Brian S., DO (2016). Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. In T.W. Post, R. Bachur & J. Wiley (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from

Kienstra, Andrew J., MD & Macias, Charles G., MD, MPH (2014). Osgood-Schlatter disease (tibial tuberosity avulsion). In T.W. Post, P. Williams, J. Singer & J Wiley (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from avulsion?source=search_result&search=osgood%20schlatter&selectedTitle=1~57

Kim, Jae-Gyoon, Seung-Woo Han, and Dae-Hee Lee. Diagnosis and Treatment of Discoid Meniscus. Knee Surgery & Related Research 28.4 (2016): 255-262. PMC. Web. 23 Jan. 2017.

Knee Pain and Osgood-Schlatter Disease. American Academy of Pediatrics. 20 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 Jan. 2017. Available from

King, Christopher. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Procedures. New York: 2008.

Martin, Sean N., DO & deWeber, Kevin, MD, FAAFP, FACSM (2016). Lateral collateral ligament injury and related posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. . In T.W. Post, K. Fields & J. Grayzel (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from

McDonald, James, MD, MPH, FAAFP, FACSM & Rodenberg, Richard, MD (2016). Posterior cruciate ligament injury. In T.W. Post, F. OConnor & J. Grayzel (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from

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Therese L. Canares and Gregory Lockhart S. Sprains. Pediatrics in Review. 2013;34;47

Wolf, Michael. Knee Pain in Children, Part III: Stress Injuries, Benign Bone Tumors, Growing Pains. Pediatrics in Review Mar 2016, 37 (3) 114-119; DOI: 10.1542/pir.2015-0042. Print.

Zitelli, B., McIntire, S. C., & Nowalk, A. J. (2017). Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.


Image sources

Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Retrieved 14:24, June 1, 2018 from

Unless otherwise noted:

All unspecified computer graphics/drawings were created by Pablo Lopez and used with his permission.

All unspecified photographs by Sharon Sanchez, MD University of Texas Medical Branch and used with her permission.

All unspecified radiographic images were created by Leonard Swischuk MD, University of Texas Medical Branch and used with his permisson.