Pasteur carried out pioneering work in microbiology and immunology, and his efforts to improve the wine and beer industries of France resulted in a new technique—pasteurization. His study of silkworm disease led him to investigate a number of infectious diseases (anthrax, fowl cholera, swine erysipelas) and to develop appropriate vaccines.  In particular, Pasteur’s work on rabies spread his fame well beyond France. At the time of his death, about 20,000 people had undergone his treatment for rabies in various centers around the world.